The optical layout of beamlines at MAX IV are typically designed in close collaboration with our optics simulation experts.

MAX IV uses a number of simulation tools to perform ray tracing, wave propagation and finite element analysis of deformation under heat loads. These tools enable us to determine the required properties of the optical elements to achieve the desired flux, coherence and resolution. The simulation tools also define the specifications for the opto-mechanics including range of motion, required cooling and vibrational stability.

The optical simulations go beyond perfect optics. Simulations can include slope errors from gravitational sag, thermos-elastic deformation, surface roughness and slope errors from the manufacturing process. During commissioning and beamline operation simulations can support the correction and identification of optical misalignments. 

Optics simulation packages from MAX IV

There are currently two optics simulation packages developed at MAX IV:


integration of heat load calculation and thermoelastic deformation in ray tracing with Shadow3.
Responsible: Peter Sondhauss


XRT is a ray tracing and wave front propagation.
Responsible: Konstantin Klementiev

Page manager: Louisa Pickworth March 2, 2023