A second experimental station, the imaging station, is currently being build and commissioned. In its mature state, it will provide an X-ray beam focused down to a 30 nm spot, with a long term goal of 10 nm. The imaging endstation will rely on position monitoring at the nanometer scale using optical interferometry and will provide a single rotation axis for tomographic measurements. The station will operate in vacuum and is designed to have liquid nitrogen sample cooling.

First test experiments in air were conducted in late 2021 and early 2022. The the goal is to have the complete microscope, with vacuum flight tube installed and partly commissioned during early 2023.

Methods

X-ray fluorescence (XFM) mapping

Using the nano-focused beam, information about the local elemental composition of the illuminated area can be extracted by measuring the secondary X-ray fluorescence photons using the energy-dispersive detectors mounted to both sides of the sample. This arrangement is especially advantageous for XRF tomography (3D) measurements.

(Scanning) Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) – ptychography

The beamline design allows to freely choose the degree of coherence in the probing beam, facilitating coherent diffraction imaging methods. These allow to measure the complex transmission function of the sample, as well as the complex beam profile. Both with a resolution better than the size of the focused beam. Again, 2D, as well as 3D measurements are possible.

Optics and beam size

The NanoMAX imaging station currently offers only Fresnel zone plates (FZP) as beam focusing optics. Various FZPs with different diameters, different outer most zone widths and different designs are present at the beamline. To choose the FZP best fitting for your application, please contact the beamline staff early when writing your proposal / planning your beamtime.

As a well rounded standard FZP, we offer is made from gold, has 72.32 µm diameter and 60 nm outermost zone width. It does create a focal spot with the shape of an Airy disc, where the width of the central spot matches the outermost zone width (see the beam profile measured at the focus position shown in Figure to the right).

The usage of gold FZPs and gold central stops, currently limits the photon energy range from 6 keV to 10 keV.

Detectors

The NanoMAX imaging station offers two types of detectors. Firstly, a large in-vacuum pixel detector (EIGER2 X 4M) in the forward direction for diffraction and coherent imaging methods. Secondly, two in-vacuum Silicon Drift Diode X-ray fluorescence detectors with carbon windows used for elemental mapping.

Proposal call information

The “Spring23” proposal call, with deadline September 26th 2022, is open for applications to this station. All planned functionality will, however, not be available during the beamtime period, ending August 2023. The goal is to be able to perform scanning 2D and tomography measurements under vacuum, at room temperature, with the two opposing XRF detectors, and the Eiger2 X 4M area detector.