Sample area of the diffraction station
Sample Area
Overview photo of the NanoMAX diffraction station

Diffraction station parameters

Photon energy5-28 keVRoutine operation 8-15 keV
Focal spot size50 – 200 nm
Measured: 98 nm at 8 keV, 62 nm at 14 keV
Diffraction limited spot, the spot size is energy dependent. See
Focused beam divergenceApproximately 1.2 mrad (both vertical and horizontal)energy independent
Coherent FluxFully coherent beam: 6×1010 at 8keV, 3×1010 at 10keV, 8×109 at 14keVThe flux at the sample position depends on energy, see Beamline Optics and
2-circle GoniometerTheta: stroke [-5, 90] deg, resolution: 10-4 deg
Phi: stroke [-180, 180] deg, resolution: 10-4 deg
Theta is horizontal and perpendicular to the X-ray beam. Phi is perpendicular to Theta and vertical for Theta=0.
Note that the goniometer does not provide tomographic capabilities.
Coarse sample scanner (XYZ)Stroke: 20 mm, Resolution: 100 nmThis is an in-house development
Fine sample scanner (XYZ)Option 1 (standard): 100 μm stroke in all directions

Option 2: 200 μm stroke in each horizontal direction, 100 μm vertical stroke
This option provides the stiffest frame and the highest resolution

Accessible spaceApprox. 50 mm working space upstream of the X-ray focus.Always contact the beamline staff to discuss non-standard sample holders or environments.
Continuous scanningA single fine axis (X, Y, or Z) can be scanned continuously for fast mapping in 2D.
Sample MicroscopesOn Axis and Top Microscopes
Maximum resolution: 5 μm
Maximum Field of View: 0.3–4 mm
X-Ray FluorescenceRaySpec single-element SDD, coupled with an XSPRESS3 pulse processor
In-line DetectorsEiger2 X 1M in vacuum, 1028 x 1062 pixels2, 75 μm pixel size

Pilatus3 X 1M, 981 x 1043 pixels2, 172 μm pixel size, 1000 µm thick Si sensor

High-resolution Crytur camera, 2048 x 2048 pixels2, 600 nm effective pixel size
Detector distance given by flight tube, approx 1-3.8 m

Detector distance minimum 160 mm

Flexible placement downstream of the sample
Diffraction detectorEiger2 X 500K, 1028 x 512 pixels2, 75 μm pixel size

Merlin Si Quad, 512 x 512 pixels2, 55 μm pixel size
Mounted on the detector robot arm.

Legacy detector, please contact beamline staff.
Detector robotPositions the detector in a spherical coordinate system with polar and azimuthal angles approx. [-5, 90] degrees, and radius approx. [200, 1000] mm.
Flight tubesForward vacuum tube housing the Eiger 3.5 m from the focus (modular in 1 m segments up to 4.5 m). Entry window 1.0 um Si3N4.

Inflatable He tube for the Bragg geometry, cut to length. Entry and exit windows 6 um mylar.
Other integrated equipmentKeysight B2985A electrometer
ALBA electrometers
PandABox acquisition card for digital and analog input
SRS EC301 potentiostat
Alemnis Nanoindenter
Energy scanningManual energy changes are possible on a timescale of minutes. Image stacks can be collected as functions of energy, but XANES and EXAFS measurements are not possible.
Off-line microscopyTwo optical microscopes are available for off-line sample inspection. One is a high resolution microscope (Olympus BX53M), the other a long distance stereo microscope (Olympus SZX16).
A Hitachi SU1000 electron microscope is also available at the beamline.