A number of LDM sample delivery systems are available at MAX IV (including a molecular jet/cluster source, liquid microjets, magnetron based source for metal particle beams) and more are under development (aerodynamic lens sample delivery system, liquid flat jet setup – monitor this page for more details).

Molecular jet source / Cluster source

Once in full operation, it will be possible to use this sample delivery system in either continuous or pulsed (under development) mode. Since the source is shared with other LDM beamlines, it is essential to discuss the availability and status with the LDM team or beamline staff well in advance. Note: an online booking procedure is planned for the future (information regarding this will be provided in due course).

DescriptionAdiabatic expansion source with cylindrical sample reservoir. Reservoir heating and nozzle heating possible.
ManipulatorZ-travel 400 mm, XY ±12.5 mm
NozzlesCu nozzles, typical opening diameter for a conical nozzle 150 µm (50-100 µm diameters flat nozzles are feasible)
TemperatureSample heating up to 150 °C possible
SamplesGaseous and Aqueous (for evaporation). All samples must be declared; aggressive, flammable or toxic samples may be denied
SeedingPossible: Via co-expansion
VacuumAncillary chamber with 2 x ATH 500M (500 l/s) turbo pumps and ACP40 GCV forevacuum pump. Manipulator with sample rod is mounted, and an additional liquid nitrogen cold trap is planned
Operational modeContinuous (pulsed operational mode under development)
Differential pumpingModular differential pumping setup with double skimmer (Cu skimmers, 50 µm – 1 cm in diameter) arrangement and 3 x 67 l/s turbo pumps
Compatible beamlines / end stationsFlexPES, FinEstBeAMS, ICE

Liquid microjet source

FlexPES

Sketch of new differential pumping insert for the liquid jet experiment at FlexPES:

ManipulatorZ-travel 400 mm, XY ±12.5 mm
NozzlesQuartz glass nozzles, typical opening diameter 20-25 µm (10-50 µm diameters are feasible). 30-40 µm available.
Liquid deliveryHPLC pump, stainless steel cylinder, typical flows 0.5 - 1 ml/min; PEEK tubing and filters, DEGASi PLUS Semi-Prep 4-ch 925μl degasser.
TemperatureJacket with flowing liquid surrounding sample delivery tube for cooling/heating. Polyscience SD07R-20 chiller.
SamplesAqueous solutions in particular, but other solvents possible (pending approval by MAX IV chemical safety group). Samples must be conductive to some degree to allow electron spectroscopy; ion concentration needed depends on species. All samples must be declared; aggressive, flammable or toxic samples may be denied.
DisposalSample caught in liquid nitrogen trap for subsequent disposal; no recycling possible
VacuumAncillary chamber with 2x HiPace1500C (1450 l/s) turbo pumps, where manipulator with sample rod is mounted, and additional liquid nitrogen cold trap.
Compatible beamlines / end stationsFlexPES, FinEstBeAMS, ...

Veritas

water-jet-running-in-the-vacuum-chamber-1-1-698x1024-2
ManipulatorZ-travel 400 mm, XY ±12.5 mm
NozzlesQuartz glass nozzles, typical opening diameter 20-25 µm (10-50 µm diameters are feasible). 30-40 µm available.
Liquid deliveryTypical flows: 0.6 ml/min flow with 30um diameter nozzle (pure water). In commissioning; PEEK tubing and filters. DEGASi PLUS Semi-Prep 4-ch 925μl degasser.
TemperaturePolyscience SD07R-20 chiller.
Samplesother solvents possible (pending approval by MAX IV chemical safety group). Samples must be conductive to some degree to allow electron spectroscopy; ion concentration needed depends on species. All samples must be declared; aggressive, flammable or toxic samples may be denied.
DisposalSample caught in liquid nitrogen trap for subsequent disposal; recycling option available in the future
VacuumMain chamber: Pfeiffer Hipace300 (260l/s) and/or Pfeiffer Hipace700 (658l/s). Forevacuum pump: Dry multistage roots pump Pfeiffer ACP 28 or 40.
Differential pumping chamber: Pfeiffer Hipace80 (67l/s), Forevacuum pump: Dry multistage roots pump Pfeiffer ACP 28 or 40.
Compatible beamlines/end stationsVeritas, FinEstBeAMS...

HIPPIE

Manipulatormotorized (for jet and catcher)
NozzlesQuartz glass nozzles, typical opening diameter 15 and 25 µm. 30-40 µm available.
Liquid deliveryHPLC pump, stainless steel cylinder, typical flow rate will be updated soon; PEEK tubing and filters,

Capillary mixing of 2 liquids is available.

Liquids can be degassed in a separated vacuum chamber pumped by a forevaccum pump.
TemperatureJet manipulator has heating/cooling jacket. The catcher can also be heated and cooled.
SamplesUse of solvents depends upon approval by MAX IV chemical safety group. Samples must be conductive to some degree to allow electron spectroscopy; ion concentration needed depends on species. All samples must be declared; aggressive, flammable or toxic samples may be denied.
DisposalCatcher, which must be emptied periodically
VacuumLarge volume vacuum vessel with two manipulators. Top manipulator holds the microjet; bottom manipulator holds the catcher (300 ml). Cell access is done via 300 mm front "door" (load-lock style). Vessel is equipped with halogen lamps for homogenous environment heating.
Base pressure: 1e-5 mbar (not bakeable)
Pressure range: 1e-5 mbar – 30 mbar.
Jet operates at equilibrium liquid pressure (24 mbar for water at RT).
Compatible beamlines/end stationsHIPPIE

Aerodynamic Lens Sample Delivery System (expert commissioning)

DescriptionAerodynamic particle sampling lens for PM 1 (Aerodyne Research Inc.)
Aerosol sampling inlet transmission range 40nm - 1um
Critical orifice100um
ManipulatorZ-travel 400 mm, XY ±12.5 mm
SamplesCommissioned with salt aerosols. Further commissioning with nanoparticles during Fall22.
Operating pressure ~1mbar
VacuumAncillary chamber with 1 x ATH 2303M (2150 l/s) turbo pump
Operational modeContinuous
Differential pumpingModular differential pumping setup. Single/double skimmer arrangement possible (Cu skimmers, 1mm orifice diameter) and 3 x HiPace80 (67 l/s) turbo pumps.
Accessories (currently planned)Constant Output Atomizer and Diffusion Dryer (non-cobalt) from TSI Inc.
Compatible beamlines / end stationsFinEstBeAMS (expert commissioning Spring 23 proposal call), future plans include commissioning at FlexPES.
StatusOpening for Expert Commissioning using FinEstBeAMS gas phase end station. Proposal call Spring23 opens 2022-09-05 and closes 2022-09-26. In advance of submitting an expert commissioning proposal, please consult with the LDM team or the FinEstBeAMS BL manager concerning potential samples for the expert commissioning proposals. All samples must be declared; aggressive, flammable or toxic samples may be denied.