Join us in the tour of MAX IV Laboratory’s accelerators hosted by Sverker Werin, professor in accelerator physics at Lund University and MAX IV. In this video you will follow the electrons in their journey from the electron guns to the storage rings and discover how the brilliant X-ray source of MAX IV is produced.
The journey to MAX IV’s brilliant synchrotron light that scientists use at the beamlines, starts with the electrons being accelerated by the electron guns, situated at the beginning of the linac, MAX IV’s linear accelerator. The electrons are injected into the linear accelerator, where they start gaining energy and speed while their course is adjusted by complex sets of magnets. Magnets are one of the key elements in the complex machine that is a synchrotron accelerator. They are the “tool” allowing scientists and engineers to directly manipulate and control the electron beam. There are many different sets of magnets at MAX IV, all with a different purpose. Among others: bending magnets, correction magnets, and quadrupole focusing magnets.
Once the electrons have reached 1.5 GeV in energy, we come to the first extraction points, where electrons are deviated to be stored in the 1.5 GeV ring, the smaller of MAX IV two storage rings. Towards the end of the linac, where electrons reach 3.0 GeV in energy, is the second extraction point, the one for the larger 3.0 GeV storage ring. Another crucial aspect that needs to be closely monitored in the linac is the frequency of the electron pulses. The electrons in the linear accelerator must travel at a very precise frequency and in pulses. Pulses are created by modulators situated in a gallery parallel to the linac, the klystron gallery. These pulses are then amplified in energy and injected into the linac.
Once circulating in the storage rings, the electrons are used to extract X-rays. X-ray light is produced by “shaking” the electrons as they circulate in the storage ring, which causes the electron beam to lose some of its energy in the form of photons. Electron storage rings are complex structures built with the aim of having the electrons to circulating at constant energy while producing brilliant synchrotron light. There are many innovative solutions employed in the MAX IV storage rings that allowed to construct smaller, stronger and better aligned magnets, a sophisticated vacuum system, or a simpler technology for the radiofrequency (RF) cavities.
MAX IV Laboratory pioneered 4th generation synchrotron light facilities, allowing researchers to perform research previously unachievable in the X-ray spectrum. A significant part of this advancement is thanks to the innovative construction concepts and finely tuned instruments enabling MAX IV staff to harness the energy of electrons to produce brilliant light for brilliant research!
More on MAX IV technology: This is MAX IV