The permanent endstation at the LDM branch is dedicated to photoelectron and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies on separate atoms and molecules, cluster beams, liquid beams, surfaces, and thin films. It comprises three chambers: an ionization chamber with Scienta SES R4000 electron spectrometer, preparation chamber with sample transfer and treatment facilities, and a fast introduction chamber with a sample garage. Main characteristics of this system are described below.


Ionization and analysis chamber

Base pressure10-8 mbar
Gas inputGas-sending system with 4 separate gas lines and 1 liquid vapor line (under construction)
Beam size at sample 120 x (10-100, slit dependent) μm2, can be increased on demand

Magnetic shieldingμ-metal
DetectionScienta R4000 spectrometer with MCP/CCD detector
Sample delivery1. Solid samples on sample manipulator
2. Molecular/cluster beams from a dedicated sample delivery system (to be booked well in advance)
3. Liquid beams from a dedicated liquid jet source (to be booked well in advance)


Preparation chamber

Base pressure10-9 mbar
Sample manipulation 600 mm Z-travel XYZ VG Omniax manipulator with a rotation stage in horizontal arrangement
Sputter gunYes (Physical electronics)
DosingGas-sending system with 4 separate gas lines and 1 liquid vapor line (under construction)


Sample introduction chamber

Base pressure10-8 mbar
Sample manipulationMagnetic transfer arm to match the manipulator in preparation chamber
Sample storageCapacity: 6 samples