On this page you will find an overview of the X-ray optics that have been designed for DanMAX. You can read more about the beamline and the optics in the detailed design report (version 2.0) here: DanMAX_DDR_v2.pdf (26 MB).

The beamline will transmit a photons with an energy of 15–35 keV. The optics employs two monochromator in three different configurations: 1) high intensity–low resolution (ΔE/E ~ 10-2), 2) high resolution–lower intensity (ΔE/E ~ 10-4) and 3) high resolution–lower intensity with higher harmonic rejection (ΔE/E ~ 10-4).

The beam can be focused, collimated and even expanded using compound refractive lenses made from Be.


1) High intensity using the horizontal double MultiLayer Monochromator, MLM (ΔE/E ~ 10-2)


2) High resolution using the Si111 horizontal double crystal monochromator, hDCM (ΔE/E ~ 10-4)



3) High resolution with higher harmonic rejection using the Si111 hDCM and the MLM (ΔE/E ~ 10-4).

The optical components has been delivered by FMB Oxford Ltd.

Installation of the X-ray optics components at DanMAX

Energy range15 - 35 keV (0.83 - 0.35 Å)
High resolution monochromator (hDCM)Cryo-cooled double bounce Si111 crystal monochromator with fixed exit
Energy bandpass hDCM (∆E/E, FWHM)1.7 x 10-4 (@15 keV) - 3.2 -4 (@35 keV)
High intensity monochromator (hMLM)Watercooled double bounce multi-layer monochromator with fixed exit.
W/B4C and Ni0.93V0.074/B4C coatings
Energy bandpass hMLM (∆E/E, FWHM)0.3% - 1% (depending on energy and ML coating)
Focusing optics (CRL)Transfocator with 0-50 Be CRLs with R=200 µm
Sample positionsImaging: 40.1 m
PXRD2D: 43.5 m
PXRD1D: 49.0 m
Beam size at sample position (imaging, FWHM)~5 x 40 μm2 to 0.8 x 0.8 mm2 (hDCM)
~10 x 100 μm2 to 1.2 x 1.3 mm2 (hMLM)
Divergence at sample position, unfocused (RMS)~8 x 7 μrad2 (h x v, hDCM)
~16 x 10 μrad2 (h x v, hMLM)
Divergence at sample position, collimated (RMS)~1.5 x < 1 μrad2 (h x v) with the hDCM (15-35 keV)
~5 x < 0.5 μrad2 (h x v) with the MLM (15-35 keV)
Flux at sample position (hDCM)~4 x 1013 ph/s (15keV)
~5 x 1012 ph/s (35keV)
Flux at sample position (hMLM)~6 x 1014 ph/s (15 keV)
~5 x 1013 ph/s (35 keV)


The DanMAX undulator is designed to have a maximum brilliance of 35 keV. A 3 m in-vacuum undulator with a short period has been chosen which will deliver 35 keV radiation from the 13th harmonic. You can download the IVU and accelerator parameters in SPECTRA format here.

The undulator has been delivered to MAX IV by Hitachi Metals Ltd. and is now installed in the MAX IV 3GeV storrage ring.

DanMAX 3m long IVU16 ready to deliver beam to the beamline

TypeIn-vacuum hybrid undulator (IVU16)
Magnetic materialNMX-S41EH+Dy Diffusion/VP
Pole materialVanadiun Perndur
Magnetic Length3 m
# of Periods187
Period16 mm
Minimum magnetic gap4 mm
K max1.66
Source size53.9 x 6.4 µm2 (h x v, RMS)
Source divergence11.3 x 9.8 µrad2 (h x v, RMS)