Beamline Development at MAX IV
Beamlines at a state-of-the-art synchrotron research facility like MAX IV are complex, sophisticated scientific instruments that typically take 5-6 years to develop and prepare for researchers (users) to use for experiments.
The beamline development process begins with a scientific case, conceptual design, and proposal for funding. Once beamline projects are funded they proceed with a detailed design, component procurement and fabrication, installation, then preparation for operations (commissioning). Commissioning, typically a 6-12 month process is assisted by expert users experienced with these activities and who are willing to help test and calibrate the beamline instrumentation.
As commissioning nears completion, beamlines issue a first call for user proposals where regular users can apply for beamtime to perform experiments on beamlines through a peer-reviewed application process. The operations phase of a beamline typically begins 6 months after the first call for proposals. Regular calls are issued every six months after that.
The figure below shows the current development priorities and schedule for implementing baseline capabilities at the 16 funded beamline projects at MAX IV. The first, second, third and fourth columns indicate the prioritization
for development, the risk levels for meeting development deadlines, the beamlines by name, and the current status of each. The fifth, sixth and seventh columns show planned dates for the arrival of the first expert users to assist with final commissioning, the first proposal calls for general users and arrival of the first general users at each beamline (“NA” means not applicable).
The colour scheme indicates the overall status and development priorities. Beamlines in the commissioning (yellow) and operations (green) phases continue to have development activities as additional capabilities are added, however, these are at lower overall priority compared to beamlines in the installation phase (red and pink).
MAX IV Beamline Baseline Development Priorities
|Beamline||Techniques||Energy Range||Beam Size|
|BLOCH||high resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), optionally spin resolved (Spin-ARPES) and core-level spectroscopy (CLS)||10 -1000 eV||10μm x 25μm (VxH)|
|Balder||XAS, XES||2.4 - 40 keV||defocused V ~0.1-2 mm x H ~ 2-9 mm, focused 100 x 100 µm2|
|BioMAX||MX, MAD, SAD, SSAD, Atomic resolution data collection, Large sample ensemble screening, In situ crystal diffraction||5-25 keV||20 μm x 5 μm|
|CoSAXS||SAXS, BioSAXS, Time resolved SAXS, Micro beam SAXS, Anomalous SAXS, XPCS||4-20 keV||Typically 100x100 μm2 at the sample, down to 10x10 μm2|
|DanMAX||Powder X-ray diffraction, Full-field imaging, absorption, phase and diffraction contrast tomography.||15-35 keV with a possibility to go down to 10 keV||5 µm - 5 mm|
|FemtoMAX||Time-resolved X-ray scattering, Time-resolved X-ray spectroscopies, Time-resolved SAXS, Time-resolved reflectivity||1.8 keV - 20 keV||Unfocused 1 mm diameter; Focused 0.04 mm dia; With cylindric Be-lenses 0.01 mm x 0.04 mm v x h|
|FLEXPES||High-resolution XPS and XAS, resonant photoemission (ResPES) and angle-resolved valence band spectroscopy (ARPES), electron-ion coincidence experiments||40 to 1500 eV||From 50 μm to 2 mm|
|FinEstBEAMS||XPS, XAS, PEPICO, TOF||4.3 eV - 1000 eV (288 nm - 1.24 nm)||0.1 (V) x 0.1 (H) mm, best: 0.02 (V) x 0.1 (H) mm|
|HIPPIE||AP-XPS, AP-XAS||110-2000 eV (full range), 263-1200 eV (full circular polarisation)||50 µm x 50 µm|
|MAXPEEM||LEEM, DF-LEEM, UVPEEM, XPEEM, DF-XPEEM, micro-ARPES, micro-LEED, XMCD, micro-XAS||30 - 1200eV||minimum 16x16μm^2, maximum 50x50μm^2|
|NanoMAX||Scanning transmission microscopy (STXM) with absorption and phase contrast X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRF) Coherent diffraction imaging techniques (CDI) Ptychography in forward direction and Bragg geometry||5 - 30 keV||300nm – 30 nm. Mature goal 10 nm|
|SoftiMAX||STXM, Ptychography, Fourier Transform Holography||250 – 2500 eV with full polarization control||25 nm (STXM), 100 nm (Ptychography), 20 μm (Fourier Transform Holography)|
|SPECIES||RIXS, NEXAFS, XPS, HP-XPS, XAS||27 – 1500 eV (linear polarization) 40 – 300 eV (circular polarization) Elliptically polarizing EPU61 undulator Period length 61mm, 40 periods 16 mm minimum gap Collimated plane grating monochromator (FMB Berlin)||RIXS 5×25 μm2 HP-XPS 100×100 μm2|
|VERITAS||RIXS||275-1000 eV||1×5 μm2|