MAX IV is not only world-leading when it comes to scientific properties. It is also a very energy efficient facility due to the technical design of the accelerator and the buildings. The different new techniques developed for MAX IV will reduce energy consumption compared to traditional synchrotron facilities. The smaller magnets, the lower frequency used in the RF cavities and the NEG coating in the storage rings make the MAX IV less energy-consuming than any other synchrotron. The total power consumption of magnets in the 3 GeV MAX IV is about half of that in the MAX II ring even though the MAX IV facility is five times bigger. And yet the quantity and quality (brilliance) of the synchrotron light produced by MAX IV will be vastly superior to that in MAX II.
Still, research facilities as big as MAX IV does use a lot of energy. The ambition is to use only electricity coming from renewable sources, mainly water and wind. A small amount of electricity will also be generated by solar panels on the roof of the office building. Great efforts have been made to recycle and reuse the excess heat generated from the linac and accelerators. All accelerator equipment is connected to a cooling system with heat exchangers and heat pumps which makes it possible to reuse the excess heat via the district heating system in Lund and getting cooling water for the accelerator equipment in return. This is not only a way to make really good use of all the excess heat generated in the facility but also a way to receive cooling water, reduce the operation cost for the facility and reduce the carbon footprint.
Green design and construction
The design and construction of MAX IV are based on the latest techniques and expertise, and the facility has been classified as a “Green Building”, “Miljöbyggnad Guld” and “BREEAM Outstanding”, among others, in accordance with the new Swedish environmental guidelines. MAX IV was the first building to receive the classification of BREEAM-SE, which, together with the one of Green Building, relates to the office building in particular; however, the same high-level environmental standards have been applied to the entire facility. The classification Miljöbyggnad Guld relates to the entire facility. To attain this high environmental standard, an extensive programme for sustainable construction was implemented. Among other things, this involved the installation of led lights in all of the buildings, controlled ventilation, and green roofs that improve insulation, help stabilise the temperature in the experiment halls, while storing and delaying rainwater drainage, reducing the impact on the sewage systems and improving the wildlife environment. Also, the construction process in itself included goals for sustainability, for example, “greener” logistics, low energy consumption, minimum waste, waste management etc.
A green site
The landscape around MAX IV complies with the high sustainability agenda for the area. For example, all the cut and fill from the excavations are kept on site and are reshaped into a hilly landscape, constructed to reduce vibrations and to maximise the land surface area. This provides room for more grass, flowers, recreational areas, birds and frogs. To further enhance the ecological diversity, a mix of seeds from the nearby nature reserve Kungsmarken and from local businesses is sown on the slopes. Water is an important feature for wildlife and also enhances the biological diversity, so rainwater ponds including wetland vegetation have been introduced.