When

What

Who

Why

 Field of research

1901 Physics Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him” associated with crystallography discovers X-rays
1905 Physics Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard “for his work on cathode rays”
1914 Physics Max von Laue “for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals” associated with crystallography
1915 Physics Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg “for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays” associated with crystallography extend the use of X-ray diffraction as a technique for determining crystal structure
1917 Physics Charles Glover Barkla “for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements” associated with crystallography
1924 Physics Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn “for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy”
1927 Physics Arthur Holly Compton “for his discovery of the effect named after him”
1936 Chemistry Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye “for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases” associated with crystallography
1936 Physics  Victor Franz Hess “for his discovery of cosmic radiation”
1946 Physiology or Medicine Hermann Joseph Muller “for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”
1958 Physics Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm “for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”
1961 Physics Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer “for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name”
1962 Chemistry Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew “for their studies of the structures of globular proteins” associated with crystallography Max Purutz and Sir John Kendrew. at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge uses X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of haemoglobin
1962 Physiology or Medicine Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins “for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”
1964 Chemistry Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin “for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances” including Vitamin B12 associated with crystallography
1972 Chemistry Christian B. Anfinsen “for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation” associated with crystallography
1972 Chemistry Stanford Moore and William H. Stein “for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”
1976 Chemistry William N. Lipscomb “for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding” associated with crystallography
1979 Physiology or Medicine Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield “for the development of computer assisted tomography”
1981 Physics Kai M. Siegbahn “for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy”
1985 Chemistry Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle “for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures” associated with crystallography
1988 Chemistry Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel “for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre” associated with crystallography
1997 Chemistry Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker “for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)” SRS for his work on the structure of Bovine F1 ATP synthase structure-mechanism of F1-ATPase
2003 Chemistry Peter Agre and Roderick Mackinnon “for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes” ESRF associated with crystallography Agre “for the discovery of water channels”. Roderick MacKinnon “for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”
2009 Chemistry Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A Steitz and Ada E Yonath “for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome” ESRF. APS associated with crystallography
2011 Chemistry Dan Shechtman “for the discovery of quasicrystals” associated with crystallography
2012 Chemistry Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka “for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors” ESRF, APS associated with crystallography
1929 Physics L.-V. de Broglie The wave nature of the electron associated with crystallography
1937 Physics C. J. Davisson and G. Thompson Diffraction of electrons by crystals associated with crystallography
1946 Chemistry J. B. Sumner For his discovery that enzymes can be crystallised associated with crystallography
1954 Chemistry L. C. Pauling For his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances associated with crystallography
1982 Chemistry A. Klug Development of crystallographic electron microscopy and discovery of the structure of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexe associated with crystallography
1991 Physics P.-G. de Gennes Methods of discovering order in simple systems can be applied to polymers and liquid crystals associated with crystallography
1992 Physics G. Charpak Discovery of the multi wire proportional chamber associated with crystallography
1994 Physics C. Shull and N. Brockhouse Neutron diffraction associated with crystallography
1996 Chemistry R.Curl, H. Kroto and R. Smalley Discovery of the fullerene form of carbon associated with crystallography
1997 Chemistry P. D. Boyer, J. E. Walker and J. C. Skou Elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme associated with crystallography
2006 Chemistry R. D. Kornberg Studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription associated with crystallography
2010 Physics A. Geim and K. Novoselov For groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene associated with crystallography
2013 Chemistry M. Karplus, M. Levitt and A. Warshel For the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems associated with crystallography